Appendix

Glossary of terms and definitions
Falkenmark Water Stress Indicator (Resources to population index)
Dry season flow by river basin
Water availability index WAI
Basic Human Needs Index
Index of water scarcity
Vulnerability of Water Systems
Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)
Water Poverty Index (WPI)
Water resources indicators, applicable scales and data requirements
PSR Approach
DPSIR Approach
CSD Working List of Indicators of Sustainable Development
OECD environmental indicators
European System of Environmental Pressure Indices (EPI)
Plan Bleu
WFD Classification
The WSM - DSS Approach
Web Links for further reading

Glossary of terms and definitions

Actual external renewable water resources

Part of the external water resources that is available, taking into consideration the quantity of flows reserved to upstream and downstream countries through formal or informal agreements or treaties.

Annual water withdrawals

Amount of water that is abstracted from surface or groundwater resources by water companies (public water supply) or directly by water consumers.

Consumptive use

Water that is abstracted and not longer available for use because it has evaporated, transpired, been incorporated into products and crops, consumed by man or livestock, ejected directly to the sea, or otherwise removed from freshwater resources.

Dependency Ratio

Measures the dependence of a region on external water being computed as the total volume of external water flows (importing and inflows) over the total volume of water produced on a yearly basis.

Demand coverage

Describes the relative coverage of water demand for a given sector.

Consumption Index

Consumptive use/Total water production.

External renewable water resources ERWR

Part of the renewable water resources coming from outside the country or shared with neighbouring countries.

Internal renewable water resources IRWR

Average annual flow of rivers and recharge of groundwater generated from endogenous precipitation.

Non-sustainable Water production index

Measures the amount of water that is abstracted in excess of the sources’ recharge on a yearly basis as a fraction of the total water abstractions. For groundwater it is based on the concept of sustainable yield which is defined as the quantity that can be extracted from an aquifer on a sustainable basis.

Exploitation Index

Measures the relative pressure of annual production on groundwater resources; Sum of the volumes of annual conventional renewable natural freshwater production for all uses including all loses over the volume of average annual flows of renewable groundwater resources (recharge).

Sustainable yield of aquifers

Quantity that can be extracted from an aquifer on a sustainable basis. Theoretically, the sustainable yield is equal to recharge but it is in most cases considered less than recharge as it must also allow for adequate provision of water to sustain streams, springs, wetlands and groundwater dependent ecosystems. Abstractions from renewable groundwater are therefore considered to be unsustainable if the yearly amount abstracted exceeds the amount of recharge multiplied by a factor that allows for such needs.

Surface runoff

Average annual flow of rivers.

Global renewable water resources GRWR

Long-term average precipitation minus long-term average evapotranspiration plus long-term average incoming flow originating outside the country/region/basin.

Transboundary water

see: external renewable water resources.

Unconventional water resources

The sum of desalinated water resources and reused treated wastewater.

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Falkenmark Water Stress Indicator (Resources to population index)

When describing water availability in a country, the Falkenmark Water Stress Indicator, which was developed by the Swedish water expert Falkenmark in 1989, is one of the most commonly used indicators. Originally, the indicator based on the estimation that a flow unit of one million cubic metres of water can support 2,000 people in a society with a high level of development, using Israel as a reference by calculating the total annual renewable water resources per capita. Water availability of more than 1,700m³/capita/year is defined as the threshold above which water shortage occurs only irregularly or locally. Below this level, water scarcity arises in different levels of severity. Below 1,700m³/capita/year water stress appears regularly, below 1,000m³/capita/year water scarcity is a limitation to economic development and human health and well-being, and below 500m³/capita/year water availability is a main constraint to life.

Despite its global acceptance, this indicator has numerous shortcomings. First of all, only the renewable surface and groundwater flows in a country are considered. Moreover, the water availability per person is calculated as an average with regard to both the temporal and the spatial scale and thereby neglects water shortages in dry seasons or in certain regions within a country.

Furthermore, it does not take the water quality into account at all nor does it give information about a country’s ability to use the resources. Even if a country has sufficient water according to the Falkenmark indicator, these water resources possibly cannot be used because of pollution or insufficient access to them. Values of water availability and water demand for selected countries are depicted in the figure below.

Falkenmark Water Stress Index for selected countries

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Dry season flow by river basin

This indicator was developed by the World Resources Institute (WRI) as part of the Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems (PAGE) (WRI, 2000) for the description of water conditions on a river basin level. It considers the temporal variability of water availability that is essential for example in regions with rainy and dry seasons. Watersheds with a dry season are those where less than 2% of the surface runoff is available in the 4 driest months of the year. This indicator is calculated by dividing the volume of runoff during the dry season, i.e. during the four consecutive months with the lowest cumulative runoff, by the population. Based on the Falkenmark definition, a basin is water stressed if less than 1,700m³/year/person is available, and amounts between 1,700m³/year/person and 4,000m³/year/person indicate adequate supply of water.

This indicator does of course not represent an overall picture of the water resources conditions because it depicts only the water availability. But as it takes the temporal variability of water resources into account, it can serve as one part of a more complex index.

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Water availability index WAI

Meigh et al. (1999) took in their GWAVA (Global Water AVailability Assessment) model the temporal variability of water availability into account. The index includes surface water as well as groundwater resources, and compares the total amount to the demands of all sectors, i.e. domestic, industrial and agricultural demands. The month with the maximum deficit or minimum surplus respectively is decisive. The index is normalised to the range –1 to +1.

When the index is zero, availability and demands are equal.

WAI =       

with R = surface runoff, G = groundwater resources and D = sum of demands of all sectors.

The surface water availability is calculated as the 90% reliable runoff. The groundwater availability is estimated either as the potential recharge that is calculated from the monthly surface water balance, or as the potential aquifer yield, and the lower figure is considered in the calculation.

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Basic Human Needs Index

This approach is based on the use of water instead of water availability. Gleick (1996) quantified the amount of water that a person needs for basic water requirements (BWR), such as drinking, cooking, bathing, sanitation and hygiene, as 50 litres per person per day. According to this definition, estimates of the number of countries where the average domestic water use is below this threshold are made.

This indicator is only calculated on country-level so that regional water scarcity is not depicted. Again, water quality is not included into the concept. Furthermore, country data about the domestic water use are insufficient and unreliable, and the needs of other water users, such as the industry, agriculture or nature itself, are not included at all into the approach.

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Index of water scarcity

An indicator that combines information about water abstractions and water availability is the index of water scarcity. It is defined by the intensity of use of water resources, i.e. the gross freshwater abstractions as percentage of the total renewable water resources or as percentage of internal water resources.

Heap et al. (1998) added the variable of desalinated water resources to this indicator. The share of desalinated water use is insignificant on the global scale, but it is crucial in some regions, as for example in the United Arab Emirates where desalinated water corresponds to 18 % of the annual abstractions. This indicator is defined by the ratio

where RWS is the water scarcity index, W are the annual freshwater abstractions, S are the desalinated water resources and Q is the annual available water which is calculated by

where R are the internal water resources in the country, Dup is the amount of external water resources and á is the ratio of the external water resources that can be used. The factor á is influenced by the quality of the transboundary water, the real consumption of water resources in the upstream region, and the accessibility of water.

The severity of water stress is classified by

RWS < 0.1                   no water stress

0.1 < RWS < 0.2                     low water stress

0.2 < RWS < 0.4                     moderate water stress

0.4 < RWS                   high water stress

Again, this indicators neglects temporal and spatial variations as well as water quality data.

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Vulnerability of Water Systems

Gleick (1990) developed this index for watersheds in the United States as part of an assessment of the potential impacts of climate change for water resources and water systems.

It describes the vulnerability of water resources systems based on the five criteria and corresponding thresholds that are briefly described below. These five indicators are not aggregated to an overall index but for each region the number of vulnerable sections is presented. This approach emphasises the sectors of watersheds that are threatened.

·       Storage volume relative to total renewable water resources

A basin is defined as vulnerable if the storage capacity is less than 60 % of the total renewable water resources.

·       Consumptive use relative to total renewable water resources

The threshold for vulnerability is a ratio of 0.2

·       Proportion of hydroelectricity relative to total electricity

If the part of hydroelectricity is more than 25 %, the region is considered vulnerable.

·       Groundwater overdraft relative to total groundwater withdrawals

Regions with a ratio above 0.25 are defined as vulnerable.

·       Variability of flow

This indicator is calculated by dividing the surface runoff exceeded only 5 % of the time by the quantity exceeded 95 % of the time. A low ratio indicates a low variability of runoff and by that a low risk of both floods and droughts. A variability value above 3 indicates vulnerability in this aspect.

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Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

Category

Indicator

Resource Depletion

Water consumption

Inputs of phosphate to agricultural land

Dispersion of Toxic Substances

Index of heavy metal emissions to water

Emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

Consumption of toxic chemicals

Water pollution

Emissions of nutrients by households

Emissions of nutrients by industry

Pesticides used per hectare of utilised agriculture area

Nitrogen quantity used per hectare of utilised agriculture area

Emissions of organic matter from households

Emissions of organic matter from industry

Non-treated urban waste water

Urban Environmental Problems

Non-treated urban wastewater

Marine Environment and Coastal Zones

Tourism intensity

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Water Poverty Index (WPI)

Recently, the Water Poverty Index (WPI) (Sullivan, 2002, Lawrence et al., 2002), developed by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) in Wallingford, has been intensively discussed. This index tries to show the connection between water scarcity issues and socio-economic aspects. It ranks countries according to the provision of water, combining five components which are:

·       Resources

·       Access

·       Use

·       Capacity and

·       Environment

Each of these components is derived from two to five indicators which are normalised to a scale from 0 to 1.

In case of an equal weighting, the subindex and component values are then calculated as a simple average of the corresponding indicators, and this value is multiplied by 20. The overall index is generated as a sum of the component values so that the value is between 0 and 100. A value of 100 is only possible if a country ranks best in all of the five components.

 

Components of the Water Poverty Index

COMPONENT

SUBINDEX

INDICATOR

unit

Resources

 

internal water resources

km³/cap/year

 

external water resources

km³/cap/year

Access

 

access to safe water

%

 

access to sanitation

%

 

access to irrigation

--

Capacity

 

GDP per capita

US$

 

under-5 mortality rate

per 1000 live births

 

UNDP education index

--

 

Gini coefficient

--

Use

 

domestic water use

l/cap/day

 

industrial water use (as: proportion of GDP derived from industry/ proportion of water used by industry)

--

 

agricultural water use (as: proportion of GDP derived from agriculture/ proportion of water used by agriculture)

--

Environment

water quality

dissolved oxygen concentration

mg/l

phosphorus concentration

mg/l

suspended solids

mg/l

electrical conductivity

mS/cm

water stress

fertiliser consumption

100 g

pesticide use

kg

industrial organic pollutants

metric tons/ km³

% of countries territory under severe water stress (according to ESI-definition)

%

regulation and management
capacity

environmental regulatory stringency

--

environmental regulatory innovation

--

land under protected status

%

number of sectoral EIA guidelines

--

informational capacity

availability of sustainable development information at the national level, environmental strategies and action plans

--

% of ESI variables missing from public global data sets

%

biodiversity

% of threatened mammals

%

% of threatened birds

%

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Water resources indicators, applicable scales and data requirements

Indicator/ Index

Reference

Spatial Scale

Required Data

Access to drinking water
and sanitation services

WHO, 2000

country

percentage of population with access to drinking water

percentage of population with access to sanitation services

Falkenmark Water Stress Indicator

Falkenmark, 1989

country

total annual renewable water resources

population

Dry season flow by river basin

WRI, 2000

river basin

time-series of surface runoff (monthly data)

population

Basic Human Needs Index

Gleick, 1996

country

domestic water use per capita

Indicator of water scarcity

OECD, 2001

country, region

annual freshwater abstractions

total renewable water resources

Indicator of water scarcity

Heap et al., 1998

country, region

annual freshwater abstractions

desalinated water resources

internal renewable water resources

external renewable water resources

ratio of the ERWR that can be used

Water availability index WAI

Meigh et al., 1999

region

time-series of surface runoff (monthly)

time-series of groundwater resources (monthly)

water demands of domestic, agricultural and industrial sector

Vulnerability of Water Systems

Gleick, 1990

watershed

storage volume (of dams)

total renewable water resources

consumptive use

proportion of hydroelectricity to total electricity

groundwater withdrawals

groundwater resources

time-series of surface runoff

Water Resources Vulnerability Index (WRVI)

Raskin, 1997

country

annual water withdrawals

total renewable water resources

GDP per capita

national reservoir storage volume

time-series of precipitation

percentage of external water resources

Indicator of Relative Water Scarcity

Seckler et al., 1998

country

water withdrawals in 1990

water withdrawals in 2025

Index of Watershed Indicators (IWI)

EPA, 2002

watershed

15 condition and vulnerability indicators

Water Poverty Index (WPI)

Sullivan, 2002

country,  region

internal renewable water resources

external renewable water resources

access to safe water, access to sanitation

irrigated land, total arable land, total area

GDP per capita

under-5 mortality rate

UNDP education index

Gini coefficient

domestic water use per capita

GDP per sector

Water quality variables, use of pesticides

Environmental data (ESI)

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PSR Approach

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DPSIR Approach

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CSD Working List of Indicators of Sustainable Development

In 1996, the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) developed a working list of indicators of sustainable development of surface as well as groundwater. Directly water-related and indirectly water-related indicators are given below.

 

Directly water-related indicators of the CSD working list of indicators of sustainable development

Category

Chapter

Driving Forces

State

Response

Social

Protecting and promoting human health

 

Percent of population with adequate excreta disposal facilities

 

 

access to safe drinking water

 

Environmental

Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources

Annual withdrawals of ground and surface water

Groundwater reserves

Waste-water treatment coverage

Domestic consumption of water per capita

Concentration of faecal coliform in freshwater

 

Biochemical oxygen demand in water bodies

 

Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas and coastal areas

Discharges of oil into coastal waters

Algae index

 

Releases of nitrogen and phosphorus to coastal waters

 

 

Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development

Use of agricultural pesticides

Area affected by salinization and waterlogging

 

Use of fertilizers

 

 

Irrigation percent of arable land

 

 

 

Indirectly water-related indicators of the CSD working list of indicators of sustainable development

Category

Chapter

Driving Forces

State

Response

Social

Protecting and promoting human health

 

Life expectancy at birth

 

 

Infant mortality rate

 

Environ-mental

Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources

 

 

Density of hydrological networks

 

Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development

 

 

Agricultural education

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OECD environmental indicators

In 1994, the OECD developed a core set of environmental indicators, published regularly in OECD environmental performance reviews. Key indicators, drawn from this set, inform the public about main subjects of common interest. The indicators are structured in accordance with the Pressure-State-Response approach. They include indicators of freshwater quality and of freshwater resources. The indicator that describes the percentage of a nation’s territory that is protected is indirectly connected to the water issue as it influences the land use and thus the pollution and the water quality.

 

Water-related indicators of OECD set of key indicators

Issue

Pressure

State

Response

Eutrophication

Emissions of N and P in water and soil

BOD/DO in inland waters

Population connected to secondary and /or tertiary sewage treatment plants

N and P from fertiliser use and livestock

Concentration of N and P in inland waters

User charges for waste water treatment

 

 

Market share of phosphate-free detergents

Toxic contamination

Emission of heavy metals

Concentrations of heavy metals and organic compounds in environmental media

 

Emission of organic compounds

 

 

Consumption of pesticides

 

 

Acidification

 

Exceedance of critical loads of pH in water

 

Water resources

Intensity of use of water resources (abstractions/ available resources)

Frequency, duration and extent of water shortages

Water prices and charges for sewage treatment

Biodiversity

 

 

Protected areas as % of national territory and by type of ecosystem

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European System of Environmental Pressure Indices (EPI)

The European Commission’s Environmental Directorate financed an initiative to develop a set of environmental pressure indicators for the EU in order to describe human activities that have a negative impact on the environment. 48 indicators were defined structured according to the DPSIR-approach, including several connected to water (see table below).

 

Directly water-related indicators of the European System of Environmental Pressure Indices

Category

Indicator

Resource Depletion

Water consumption

Inputs of phosphate to agricultural land

Dispersion of Toxic Substances

Index of heavy metal emissions to water

Emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

Consumption of toxic chemicals

Water pollution

Emissions of nutrients by households

Emissions of nutrients by industry

Pesticides used per hectare of utilised agriculture area

Nitrogen quantity used per hectare of utilised agriculture area

Emissions of organic matter from households

Emissions of organic matter from industry

Non-treated urban waste water

Urban Environmental Problems

Non-treated urban wastewater

Marine Environment and Coastal Zones

Tourism intensity

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Plan Bleu

The Mediterranean Commission on Sustainable Development (MCSD) has the target to provide a tool to measure progress to sustainable development in the Mediterranean countries. For that reason, a set of 130 indicators structured according to the PSR-approach was developed by its activity centre called “Plan Bleu pour l'environnement et le développement en Méditerranée” (Blue Plan for the Environment and Development in the Mediterranean), 40 among them were adopted from the UNCSD working list of indicators

The indicators provide information in the following categories:

·       Population and society

·       Lands and areas

·       Economic activities and sustainability

·       Environment

·       The sustainable development: actors and policies

·       Exchanges and co-operation in the Mediterranean

The included water-related indicators are summarised in the table below. The indicators that are indirectly connected to water include several that describe the importance of tourism in the country and thus the increasing water demand in the holiday season. Furthermore, two indicators of health that is influenced by the supply with safe water and two indicators of policies and strategies, representing the efforts to improve the situation concerning water resources, are shown.

 

Directly water-related indicators of Plan Bleu

Chapter

Theme

Number

Indicator

Type1)

Population and society

Health, Public Health

13

Access to safe drinking water

R

Economic activities and sustainability

Agriculture

50

Use of agricultural pesticides

P

51

Use of fertilisers per hectare of agricultural land

P

52

Share of irrigated agricultural land

P

53

Agriculture water demand per irrigated area

P

57

Water use efficiency for irrigation

R

Mines, Industry

63

Industrial releases into water

P

Environment

Freshwater and waste water

84

Exploitation index of renewable resources

P

85

Non-sustainable water production index

P

86

Share of distributed water not conform to quality standards

S

87

Water global quality index

S

88

Share of collected and treated wastewater by the public sewerage system

R

89

Existence of economic tools to recover the water cost in various sector

R

90

Drinking water use efficiency

R

91

Share of industrial wastewater treated on site

R

1) P = Pressure indicator, S = State indicator, R = Response indicator

 

Indirectly water-related indicators of Plan Bleu

Chapter

Theme

Number

Indicator

Type1)

Population and society

Health, Public Health

11

Life expectancy at birth

S

12

Infant mortality rate

S

Lands and areas

Littoral and “littoralisation”

28

Number of tourists per km of coastline

P

Economic activities and sustainability

Tourism

76

Number of nights per 100 inhabitants

P

77

Number of secondary homes over total number of residences

P

78

Number of bed-places per 100 inhabitants

P

79

Public expenditure on tourism development

P

80

Number of international tourists per 100 inhabitants

P

81

Share of tourism receipts in the exportations

S

82

Currency balance due to tourism activities

S

83

Public expenditure on tourism sites conservation

R

The sustainable development: actors and policies

Policies and strategies of the sustainable development

125

Public expenditure on environmental protection as a percentage of GDP

R

126

Existence of environment national plans and/ or sustainable development strategies

R

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WFD Classification

The Water Framework Directive established a framework for the protection of inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and groundwater. The WFD classification methodology approaches water resources from an environmental perspective, and determines different levels of classification of water bodies, from the microlevel determination of chemical and biological indicators, to the determination of the quality status of entire bodies, to establishing macroscale ecoregions.

This Directive, under Article 8 which establishes “Monitoring of surface water status, groundwater status and protected areas” proposes a comprehensive set of indicators for assessing the quality of waters, as well as a series of standards and measures for the protection and improvement of the quality of waters. These measures, a brief description of which follows, are described in Annex V of the directive. The status of water bodies is determined, based on these indicators, to be improved or maintained accordingly.

Regarding Groundwater, the quantitative and chemical status of the resource is monitored. The parameter for the classification of quantitative status is the groundwater level regime. The core parameters for the determination of groundwater chemical status are:

·       oxygen content,

·       pH value,

·       conductivity,

·       nitrate,

·       ammonium.

The quality elements for the classification of ecological status of Rivers, Lakes, Transitional waters, Coastal waters, and Artificial and heavily modified surface water bodies involve monitoring of:

·       parameters indicative of biological quality elements

·       parameters indicative of hydromorphological quality elements

·       parameters indicative of all general physico-chemical quality elements

·       Thermal conditions

·       Oxygenation conditions

·       Salinity

·       Acidification status

·       Nutrient conditions

·       Transparency, and

·       Tidal regime for the transitional and coastal waters

·       priority list pollutants, and

·       other pollutants discharged in significant quantities.

Article 6 of the WFD establishes a “Register of protected areas”, which according to Annex IV of the directive include:

·       areas designated for the abstraction of water intended for human consumption,

·       areas designated for the protection of economically significant aquatic species,

·       bodies of water designated as recreational waters, including areas designated as bathing waters,

·       nutrient-sensitive areas, including areas designated as vulnerable zones,

·       areas designated for the protection of habitats or species where the maintenance or improvement of the status of water is an important factor in their protection, including relevant Natura 2000 sites.

 

Text Box:      1. Iberic-Macaronesian region
2. Pyrenees
3. Italy, Corsica and Malta
4. Alps
5. Dinaric western Balkan
6. Hellenic western Balkan
7. Eastern Balkan
8. Western highlands
9. Central highlands
10.The Carpathians
11. Hungarian lowlands
12. Pontic provi
13.  Western plains
14. Central plains
15. Baltic province
16. Eastern plains
17. Ireland and Northern Ireland
18. Great Britain
19. Iceland
20. Borealic uplands
21. Tundra
22. Fenno-Scandian shield
23. Taiga
24. The Caucasus
25. Caspic depression

 

 

The WFD Ecoregions for rivers and lakes

 

Finally, in Annex XI the WFD also presents a set of ecoregions in the European Union, for rivers and lakes, and for transitional and coastal waters.

Text Box:      1. Atlantic Ocean
2. Norwegian Sea
3. Barents Sea
4. North Sea
5. Baltic Sea
6. Mediterranean Sea 

 

WFD Ecoregions for transitional waters and coastal waters

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The WSM - DSS Approach

As the general idea of the decision support system (DSS) that has been developed is to compare the performance of different water management strategies over a sufficiently long period of time, the evaluation approach that is implemented in the Decision Support System (DSS) of the WaterStrategyMan is based on a two step procedure.

The first step involves a temporal aggregation of time series of aggregation into single values, the second step is aimed at providing time series of indicators as additional information to the decision maker.

 

Temporally aggregated values

Based on the primary objectives of a water management strategy (environmental compatibility, cost recovery of water services and coverage of demand for all sectors), a set of indicators is used that “measures” the performance of a strategy compared to those objectives.

The selected indicators are:

 

Indicator

Environment
Resources

Dependence on Inter-basin water transfer

Desalination and reuse percentage

Groundwater exploitation index

Non-sustainable water production index

Efficiency

Demand coverage-Animal breeding

Demand coverage-Domestic demand

Demand coverage-Environmental demand

Demand coverage-Hydropower demand

Demand coverage-Industrial demand

Demand coverage-Irrigation demand

Economics

Rate of cost recovery

 

A temporal aggregation is done according to a system performance approach suggested by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) that is aimed at temporally aggregated time series of performance indicators of a system (see Figure below).

For each of the indicators used in the WSM-DSS, the following values are computed:

·       Average value

·       Reliability

·       Reliability is the probability that a criterion value will be with the predefined range of satisfactory values.

·       Resilience

·       Resilience is an indicator for the speed of recovery of an unsatisfactory condition.

·       It is defined the number of times a satisfactory value follows an unsatisfactory value related to the total number of values. 

·       Max. Extent

·       Duration

For the evaluation of a given strategy, an overall score is computed using the temporally aggregated criterion values. Weights can be assigned to indicator values to reflect the preference structure of the decision-maker. The aggregation of all indicators mentioned above results in a score for any given strategy so that a ranking of those strategies can directly be obtained.

 

Time series of indicators

In addition to the indicators and indices that are directly used for the evaluation of water management strategies, the DSS provide a number of additional time series of indicators and indices based on the primary data that is either modelled by the system or entered as initial data.

Their purpose is merely to provide the user with additional information on the evaluation process.

 

Additional time series of indicators in the WSM-DSS

 

 

Indicator

Environment
Resources

Exploitation

Total Water production

Groundwater exploitation index

consumption index

Non-sustainable gw production

Dependencies

Dependency ratio

Anthropogenic water produced/total water production

Water quality

Percentage of treated urban water

Share of primary treatment

Share of secondary treatment

Share of tertiary treatment

Social Indicators

Pressures

Agricultural demand per ha

Tourist per inhabitant

Water abstractions per capita

Deficits

Domestic deficit as percentage of demand

Industrial deficit as percentage of demand

Environmental deficit as percentage of demand

Hydropower deficit as percentage of demand

Irrigation deficit as percentage of demand

Economics

 

Direct costs

 

Environmental costs

 

Revenues

 

Rate of cost recovery

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Web Links for further reading

·       WaterStrategyMan Website, http://environ.chemeng.ntua.gr/wsm/

·       Agenda 21, http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/agenda21/index.htm

·       The Water Poverty Index: International comparisons, 2002, http://www.nerc-wallingford.ac.uk/research/WPI/images/wdpaper.pdf

·       OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), Environmental Indicators Towards Sustainable Development, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/7/47/24993546.pdf

·       World Economic Forum, 2002 Environmental Sustainability Index, An initiative of the Global Leaders of Tomorrow Environment Task Force, http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/indicators/ESI

·       EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) Index of Watershed Indicators: An Overview. URL: http://www.epa.gov/iwi/iwi-overview.pdf

·       Le Plan Bleu, Environnement et développement en Méditerranée: http://www.planbleu.org

 

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